The first you need to do, when you find out that you have gluten sensitivity, is to eliminate gluten from your diet.
What is Celiac Disease and Gluten Intolerance?
Celiac disease is a type of immune disease in which people are intolerant to gluten. Gluten is a type of protein which can usually be found in grains like barley, wheat and rye. If one person with celiac disease consumes gluten, the immune system responds by bringing about damage to the small intestine. As a result of this reaction, people experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, bloating and other similar symptoms.
Dr. Elena F. Verdu, the lead investigator, of the Digestive Health Research Institute at McMaster University in Canada looked at how the immune reacts to gluten varied with various populations of gut bacteria. The American Journal of Pathology published includes the findings of this study.
Gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease!!
Other facts about celiac disease:
- Around 83% of the American people with celiac disease are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed with other conditions.
- Approximately 5-22% of people with this condition have a first-degree relative with celiac disease.
- 2-3 % of people who have genetic predisposition to have celiac disease actually develop this condition.
Germ-free Mice Showed Signs of Celiac Disease is Response to Gluten
The team assessed three groups of mice that expressed a gene called DQ8, which is found in humans and makes them genetically susceptible to gluten intolerance.
Each group of mice had different gut bacteria compositions, or gut microbiomes. One group was germfree, while the second one was clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF). Their gut microbiomes were free of Proteobacteria. The third group was made up of conventional SPF mice, which had various kinds of gut bacteria, such as opportunistic pathogens like Helicobacter, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Proteobacteria.
The researchers exposed each group of mice to gluten. They discovered that the germ-free mice showed increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the gut. Proliferation and activation of IELs is an early indicator of celiac disease.
The germfree mice experienced expanded death of cells that line the gastrointestinal tract that is called enterocytes, alongside anatomical alterations of the small, fingerlike projections that line the small intestine, known as the villi.
The team found that the development of gluten-induced pathology was stopped in the clean SPF mice, contrasted with the germfree mice, but this was not the case when the clean SPF mice received enteroadherent Escherichia coli from a patient with celiac disease.
Increasing Proteobacteria Worsened Gluten-induced Pathology
According to the researchers, mice with conventional SPD showed greater gluten-induced pathology when compared to clean SPF mice.
That’s why the team intended to investigate whether the presence of Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia and Helicobacter are important.
Dr. Verdu explained: “These studies demonstrate that perturbation of early microbial colonization in life and induction of dysbiosis (microbial imbalance inside the body), characterized by increased Proteobacteria, enhances the severity of gluten-induced responses in mice genetically predisposed to gluten sensitivity.”
Their data argue that the recognized increase in celiac disease prevalence in the general population over the last 50 years could be driven by perturbations in intestinal microbial ecology. Namely, specific microbiome-based therapies may aid in the prevention or treatment of celiac disease in subjects with moderate genetic risk.
Dr. Robin G. Lorenz of the University of Alabama at Birmingham revealed that the presence of Proteobacteria has an important role in celiac disease pathology. In addition, an alternative is that Proteobacteria somehow boost the immune response to gluten or gliadin.
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